Vocabulary for the fourth generation of district heating and cooling

A standardised vocabulary to facilitate efficient deployment of innovative solutions

This article discusses the latest developments in district heating as it enters its fourth generation, with a focus on smart energy concepts to achieve a net-zero carbon emission society by substituting outdated fossil fuel-based systems. It highlights the challenges of integrating renewable and recycled thermal sources, adapting to lower heat demands, and addressing increased cooling needs. According to this study, harmonising expressions and terminology is important to enhance communication and collaboration within the district heating and cooling industry, proposing an interactive vocabulary to facilitate innovation and streamline the deployment of sustainable solutions.

Authors: M. Sulzer (Empa), S. Werner (Halmstad University), S. Mennel (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts), M. Wetter (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)