The role of 4th generation district heating (4GDH) in a highly electrified hydropower dominated energy system – The case of Norway

Norway is a country that is expected to play a significant role in the transition of the European energy system due to its high shares of flexible hydropower in the electricity sector. While the country is moving towards electrification in all sectors and higher shares of variable renewable electricity generation, district heating could potentially decrease the need for electric generation and grid capacity expansion and increase the flexibility of the system.
This paper (2020) investigates the role of 4GDH in a highly electrified future Norwegian energy system.

Authors: Aalborg University, Western Norway University of Applied Science

Keywords: hydropower, 4GDH, smart energy systems, electrification, energy system analysis