Stepwise transition strategy and impact assessment for future district heating systems
IEA DHC Annex XII project “Stepwise transition strategy and impact assessment for future district heating systems” (STEP) set out to study the transition to 4th generation district heating (DH) systems (4GDH) in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. 4GDH is a concept including the integration of new, renewable heat sources, lower distribution temperatures, closer links with the surrounding energy system, flexibility in operation and integration with other long-term infrastructure projects like city planning.
Authors: Miika Rämä and Tomi J. Lindroos (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland), Svend Svendsen, Dorte Skaarup Østergaard and Michele Tunzi (Technical University of Denmark), Akram Sandvall and Kristina Holmgren (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute) - (IEA-DHC, Annex XII)
Keywords: district heating, 4th generation, low temperatures, renewable sources