5th generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) implementation potential in urban areas with existing district heating systems

Abstract: The 5th Generation District Heating and Cooling (5GDHC) network has great advantages in terms of integration of low-temperature resources, bi-directional operation, decentralised energy flows, and possible energy sharing. One way to develop the idea and concept of 5GDHC is to identify potential agents, including residential buildings, office buildings, shopping malls, data centres, electrical transformers, and so on, in 5GDHC in each target context. The prospects for 5GDHC have been assessed in light of the conditions in the Baltics. The multi-criteria analysis method was used to quantify the main identified barriers and drivers behind the implementation of 5GDHC systems. It should be noted that new urban areas in the Baltic states are being actively developed with low-energy buildings, so 5GDHS can be integrated to supply heat to these areas. The highest score in the multi-criteria assessment was achieved by Lithuania due to support availability and open heating market conditions. When all applied criteria are weighted equally, Estonia has the most favourable conditions for 5GDHC systems due to widespread use of heat pumps and greater excess heat potential.

Authors: A.Volkova, I. Pakere, L. Murauskaite, P. Huang, K. Lepiksaar, X. Zhang 

Keywords: 5GDHC, Urban waste heat, Excess heat, Heat pumps, Data centres, District cooling