Slovakia has an extensive centralised heat supply system covering more than 54% of the overall demand for heat. In 2015 approximately 1.8 million citizens, 35% of the total population of Slovakia, were served by district heating. However, the heat market has demonstrated a decrease in the supply of heat through centralised heat supply systems over the last few years. This has been caused mainly by reduced demand for heat in residential buildings, due to thermal insulation and streamlining measures. Customers disconnecting from centralised heat sources also had a negative impact, but this trend is not expected to continue on a greater scale.
The chart below shows the share of individual energy sectors on the final energy consumption in Slovakia. According to statistical data the heat consumption represents, despite its importance, only approximately 8.2 % alongside other energy sources. In 2015, the share of fuel types used in heat production remained largely unchanged compared to the previous year. The most frequently used sources include natural gas (55%) and biomass (27%).
The production of heat in DHC systems using the benefits of cogeneration of electricity and heat is most common, with a 54% share. The remaining production is secured mostly by district heating sources (boiler houses, heating plants) with external heat distribution units within the relevant assigned territory supplied by heat.
District cooling is relatively underdeveloped. Its further growth is possible to be considered in the future. The field of housing is currently limited to new residential projects, new shopping centres projects and new industrial projects (automotive sector, logistics centres and electronics sector).